Scientific Program

Day 1

Food and Nutrition | Track 2: Nutritional Science | Track 03: Nutrition and Health | Track 4: Public Health Nutrition | Track 6: Human Nutrition | Track 9: Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation | Track 10: Nutrition and Oncology
Speaker
  • The relationship between glucose and lipid metabolism parameters and carcass characteristics in finishing cattle
    Speaker
    Benjamin M. Bohrer
    University of Guelph
    Canada
    Abstract

    Blood parameters in finishing cattle, such as glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) can be used for a number of applications in ruminants. It has been widely speculated that differences in insulin sensitivity and free fatty acid circulation of finishing cattle may impact important carcass traits in beef, such as marbling and fat thickness. The objective of this research was to measure glucose and metabolism parameters in late-stage finishing cattle and establish the relationship of those parameters with carcass characteristics. Late-stage finishing steers (N=23; average initial BW=618±25 kg) and heifers (N=12; average initial BW=573±26 kg) were fed high-concentrate diets for a 56-d period. During this study period, non-fasted blood samples were collected at d-0, d-28, and d-56 and glucose-tolerance tests were conducted at d-21 and d-49 of the study period. Glucose-tolerance tests consisted of infusing cattle with 0.5 mL of 50% glucose solution/kg of BW after a period of 16-24 hours without feed and collecting blood for multiple time increments after the infusion. Cattle were slaughtered in a commercial facility on d-57 of the study period and carcass characteristics were measured 48-h after slaughter. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for all parameters using the CORR procedure of SAS. Marbling was not correlated (r ? |0.25|; P ? 0.16) with glucose tolerance test parameters, including not being correlated (r ? |0.20|; P ? 0.27) with d-56 glucose, insulin, NEFA, and BHBA. Fat thickness measured at the 12th rib location was not correlated (r ? |0.30|; P ? 0.09) with glucose tolerance test parameters, including not being correlated (r ? |0.19|; P ? 0.27) with d-56 glucose, insulin, NEFA, and BHBA. Overall, glucose and lipid metabolism parameters and carcass characteristics were mostly uncorrelated in this group of late-stage finishing cattle.

  • Carbohydrates counting as a Medical Nutrition therapy for Diabetes Mellitus
    Speaker
    Maha Abdel Hadi
    Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University
    Saudi Arabia
    Biography

    A Professor of Surgery & a Senior Consultant Breast Surgeon, Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Fellow of the American College of Surgeons and Holder of Masters in Healthcare management. Prof. Abdel Hadi had established Breast Specialty clinics at the university hospital in 2000 which is the first to be recognized in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Expanding to 5 weekly general breast specialty and breast oncology clinics accommodating around 3000 patients annually. Founder of the first Intraoperative Radiotherapy service for Breast Cancer treatment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. One of the founders, active board member and head of the patient support committee of the newly developed Saudi Cancer Foundation for which she helped establish a cancer support program and set strategies for cancer awareness in particular breast cancer. Served in many societies as an active member or board member in namely International Society for Breast Health, the American Society of Breast Diseases, Breast Surgery International, International Society of Surgery, BASO- The association for cancer surgery and Association of women surgeons. Active author with many publications in distinguished journals, and participant in both local and international individual and multicenter research projects. An invited manuscript peer reviewer for the Breast Journal, Medical Science Monitor, the Saudi Medical Journal, Arab board journal, Oman Medical Journal and Saudi Family and Community medicine Journal. Winner of three international awards: 1. The Royal college of Surgeons in Ireland Medal 2. Prize for best poster presentation at the Millennium Surgical conference AL Sharjah UAE 3. Sheikh Hamdan International award for medical science. Dubai UAE

    Abstract

    Carbohydrates have the greatest effect on blood-sugar levels when digested . around 90-100% of the carbohydrate converts to sugar (glucose) within 15 minutes to 1.5 hours. comparing with Only 58% of protein, and less than 10% of fat, are converted into sugar within several hours after consumption. Counting carbohydrates is a meal plan that involves matching your insulin dose to the amount of carbohydrates Insulin to carbohydrate ratio is a guide for determining how much insulin needed as a bolus dose to help the body process the amount of carbohydrate consuming in a meal. The magic number is "15" for counting carbohydrates (15 grams of CHO = one carbohydrate choice or serving). As an initiation for this method An "average" might be 1 unit of insulin for every 10 or 15 grams of CHO for an adult, or 1 unit for every 20 to 30 grams for a school-age child, depending on the calculation method used and it will be adjusted as food intake recorded and matching with blood sugar monitoring Infants and toddlers need individualized determinations by the diabetes care team. Fiber and alcoholic sugar have special consideration in this method because both of them had an effect on blood sugar absorption which affect blood sugar levels

  • The Ghost Aim in Medical research - Preventing fattening/insulin resistance/overall inflammation
    Speaker
    Mario Ciampolini
    Università di Firenze
    Italy
    Biography

    Mario Ciampolini is a retired professor from Università di Firenze, Dept Pediatrics, directed the Gastroenterology Research Unit, a third level referral center in the department of Pediatrics of the University of Florence (Meyer hospital) for 40 years. He worked at the Cornell University for a joined research with the University of Florence on energy expenditure in children. Three students came from Amsterdam Medical Center to learn “Recognizing Hunger” he made the first diagnoses of celiac disease in Tuscany and published 130 scientific articles, about 40 in international Press.

    Abstract

    In the world, physicians more and more appreciate findings on preprandial hunger arousal and less and less deny their validity in my country (Tuscany). People taking food after perceiving signals of hunger (Initial Hunger Meal Pattern, IHMP) prevent fattening/insulin resistance that causes an overall inflammation, diseases like asthma, vascular and malignancy risks. I wonder why scientists denied value to my endeavor. The division had a start when I read the Handbook of Physiology of the American Society for Physiology, in 1967. I was charged with the treatment of malnutrition and diarrhea. I read the handbook to become aware about mucosal digestion and absorption. At that time, these points had to be diagnosed to treat malnourished children. Before beginning any research, a dynamic, reversible condition seemed instead to operate in chronic diarrhea children and had to be found. I read that 50% - 60% or more immune cells of the human body reside in the mucosa of small intestine (Mowat, 1987, 44; Brandtzaeg et al., 1989; Abrams, 1977). Bacteria grow in the small and large intestine in dependence on nutrients, mainly those nutrients that produce energy availability (sugars, carbohydrates, amino-acids, fats (Hungate, 1967). Thus bacterial growth is proportionate to positive energy balance. I studied bacteria number on the intestinal mucosa in time after last meal. A longer interval from the meal produced a decrease in bacteria number. Thus I concluded that meal absorption develops in a competition between mucosa cells and bacteria (Ciampolini et al. 1996, 2000). The conflictual nature of mucosal absorption has been confirmed (Cooper, Siadaty, 2014; Mccoy, Köller, 2015). I personally provided many demonstrations that current meal pattern provides a lot of illnesses. I add here another proof: The many successful cures of gastrointestinal pathologies by IHMP suggest that the theory used for recovery was objective. In this view, the question: ”what food provokes cancer?” is absurd. Tumor heterogeneity is a problem for cancer therapeutics. I am pleased by this information. Malignancy needs to be prevented through a better maintenance of immune system. Health follows the relation between energy intake and expenditure. Both the existence of hundreds or thousands of bacterial species in intestine and the existence of a local huge immune reaction in intestinal mucosa sustained the conflictual view. Reading the Handbook isolated myself in a Medical World that was unaware of microbiology. Physicians saw improvements in the children I treated, but did not understand the intestinal mechanisms that were far away from their observation. They repeated: Ciampolini is alone in his statements. Now, hundreds of printing houses, and hundreds of scientific Journals ask me for submitting articles. I am alone and cannot produce hundred articles that are new and different each other. The growing number of electronic Journals created a “Babel” condition that may be useful for commercial exploitation (or for maintenance of power in some editors) but not for the “ghost aim” of improving awareness about the upsurge of malignant and vascular risks, not to meet the expectation of one billion of malnourished people. Do we have to go on in the illusion of promoting knowledge by printing ten similar articles instead of one? I would prefer a grouping of Journals on basic assumptions: the study of contagion, the study of energy balance, the study of essential nutrients, the study of genetics. A confrontation inside groups is necessary to decide either the opening of new research fields or the fusion of similar Journals. Publishing on Health requires an absence of conflicts of interest. This becomes more and more difficult. I was stopped in my institute just because I was unable at constructing a profit from my findings. Individuals devoid of conflicts of interest are precious and rare in a complex world founded on the commerce of innovation and research. Heads of Journals might join together in an endeavor for the construction of a new order. Having forwarded this claim for a shared action, I expect that somebody will respond to my address to discuss chances. The first step within the ghost aim should be the creation of a consensus among scientists on the pathogenic principal mechanism(s). The second step would be much easier: teaching the consented mechanism to the population. Other mechanisms might better function. This small piece is intended to be published in many Journals that requested a writing from mine. The piece is sufficient to show a valid although intolerable situation.

  • Nutritional profile of Diabetes Asian Indians with Low Body Mass Index: What are the unmet needs?
    Speaker
    Mini Joseph
    Christian Medical College
    India
    Biography

    Mini Joseph is pursuing post-doctoral research the field of Endocrinology Nutrition at Christian Medical College, Vellore, South India. This is a 2700 bedded tertiary care missionary hospital catering to the needs of patients from neighbouring States and countries. She has done extensive studies on the eating behaviour and nutritional profile of Lean Diabetes patients and in the field of Sports Nutrition. Her interests lies in looking at the nutrient adequacy of patients with Fibro-calculus pancreatitis diabetes, tropical calculus pancreatitis, gestational diabetes mothers, Type 1 Diabetes mellitus and bariatric patients (BMI >35) with endocrine disorders. She has presented papers on the above subjects at various International conferences. She is a Lecturer and teaches Nutrition to graduates, post-graduates, doctors and paramedical in hospital and in a Government educational Institute (Government College for Women, Kerala, India).She is involved in patient education and organising self-help groups.

    Abstract

    Statement of the problem: There is paucity of data on nutritional intake in low BMI (BMI) Asian Indians with Diabetes. Aim: To study the difference in nutrient pattern in lean Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and Fibro-calcific Pancreatic Diabetes (FCPD) patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study consisted of T1DM (n = 40) and FCPD patients (n = 20) who were gender and BMI matched Nutritional data was collected using 24 hour recall method and food diary. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin, calcium and vitamin D. Stool samples were analyzed for pancreatic elastase. Percentage analysis, Independent sample t test and Pearson Coefficient Correlation were used to analyze the data. P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Findings: The FCPD patients had a significantly lower vitamin D status compared to the TIDM group (p=0.035) however, hemoglobin, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, creatinine, albumin and calcium were similar between the groups. Further, FCPD patients had a significant higher intake of fat (p=0.039), fibre (p=0.000), calcium (p=0.047), phosphorous (p=0.035), and niacin (p=0.001) and calories from fat (p=0.047). The TIDM group had a significantly higher intake of thiamine (p=0.047) and carbohydrates (p=0.014). Conclusion: TIDM and FCPD groups have similar dietary pattern with deficit in fibre, calories, macronutrients and micronutrients. Malabsorption and poor glycaemic control in FCPD patients can be attributed to a higher dietary fat intake. A balanced diet can ensure better glycemic control.

  • Nutrition and stress prevention programs in livestock/animal production: from vitamins to vitagenes
    Speaker
    Peter F Surai
    Feed-Food.Ltd
    United Kingdom
    Biography

    Peter Surai has his expertise in animal and human nutrition and published a number of papers as well as two books (“Natural Antioxidants in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction”, 2002; and “Selenium in Nutrition and Health”, 2006) which became textbooks for animal nutritionists. His recent research is devoted to the development of effective strategies to fight commercially relevant stresses in livestock/animal production. He successfully transferred vitagene concept from medical sciences (Calabrese et al., 2007-2016) to animal and poultry sciences (Surai and Fisinin, 2016) and developed stress-prevention programs based on supplying vitagene-regulating nutrients to farm animals via drinking water. He has been awarded honorary professorships in nutritional biochemistry at various universities in the UK, Hungary, Bulgaria, Ukraine and become a foreign member of Russian Academy of Sciences. For the last 15 years he has been lecturing all over the world visiting more than 70 countries.

    Abstract

    Commercial livestock/animal production is associated with four major types of stresses, including environmental, technological, nutritional and internal stresses, affecting productive and reproductive performance of animals and their health status. It has been suggested that at the molecular level most stresses are associated with overproduction of free radicals and oxidative stress. Therefore, the development of the effective antioxidant solutions to decrease negative consequences of commercially-relevant stresses is an important task for animal scientists. One of such approaches is based on possibilities of modulation of vitagenes, a family of genes responsible for animal adaptation to stress. In fact, the vitagene network includes heat shock proteins (HSPs), thioredoxin system, sirtuins and superoxide dismutases (SODs) and plays a regulatory role in most important cellular processes in stress conditions. Indeed, HSPs, including heme oxygenase-1 and HSP70, are responsible for protein homeostasis in stress conditions, while the thioredoxin system is the major player in maintaining redox status of the cell involved in protein and DNA synthesis and repair as well as in regulation of expression of many important genes. Furthermore, sirtuins regulate the biological functions of various molecules post-translationally by removing acetyl groups from protein substrates ranging from histones to transcription factors and orchestrate cellular stress response by maintenance of genome integrity and protein stability. Finally, SODs belong to the first level of antioxidant defence preventing lipid and protein oxidation at the very early stages. All the aforementioned vitagenes operate in concert building a reliable system of stress detection and adequate response and are considered to be key elements in stress adaptation. Our studies clearly showed that supplying vitagene-regulating nutrients (carnitine, betaine, vitamin E, etc.) via drinking water could significantly improve adaptive ability of farm animals to commercially-relevant stresses and prevent decrease in their productive and reproductive performance.

  • Consumer knowledge on salt information of 18 years and above consumers at Tshififi rural community, Vhembe district Thulamela municipality Limpopo province.
    Speaker
    Mbhatsani Hlekani Vanessa
    University of Venda
    South Africa
    Biography

    Hlekani Vanessa Mbhatsani is a Lecturer of Nutrition at the University of Venda and a registered Nutritionist with the Health Professional Council of South Africa. She has received both her undergraduate BSc and MSc in Public Nutrition at the University of Venda. As a Post-graduate student she was given an opportunity to perform Research and Teaching Assistant functions. This provoked the teaching and research interest that led her to applying for the lecturing position after completion of her MSc. To enhance her teaching responsibilities, she persuaded a Post graduate Diploma in Higher Education at Rhodes University. She is currently studying towards her PhD with Stellenbosch University. Her research areas of interest include micronutrients, role of indigenous foods in health and nutrition, child nutrition and food security. She is a co-author of chapter six in a book titled “Community Nutrition for South Africa; A Right Based Approach”. She has presented her work both in national and international conferences and only published a few articles in peer reviewed journals

    Abstract

    Objectives: The main aim of the study was to determine consumer’s knowledge on salt information. Methodology: The study design was descriptive and exploratory. The research type was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The researcher conveniently selected one individual male or female who was not a visitor, but a villager during data correction. A researcher administered questionnaire was used to collect data using the local language. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were taken as well as blood pressure. Data was analysed using Microsoft excel 2010 and descriptive statistics were used to interpret the information gathered and presented in the form of tables and figures. Results A majority 95% of consumers were unaware of the recommended daily intake of salt, only 55 knew. Few 16.7% of consumers indicated that they check salt content on food products before buying. Majority 83.35 do not check. Only 26.6% of consumers accurately interpreted nutrition information on food products. While majority 84.4% were unable to interpret. Majority of were overweight and obese were 75%. Only 255 of them were normal. Majority of consumers 69.9% of Consumers were normal, while 30.1% were hypertensive. Conclusion It is concluded that consumers have average knowledge on salt information based on the researcher’s discretion. In addition more female consumers were overweight and obese as opposed to their male counterparts. However, a majority of consumers had normal blood pressure.

  • Infant feeding practices and anthropometric status of children aged 3 to 24 months of Nkowankowa township, Mopani District
    Speaker
    Mondlane NAF
    University of Venda
    South Africa
    Biography

    Mondlane NAF is working at the Department of Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Venda, South Africa. He had published many research articles in National and International Journals.

    Abstract

    Introduction: World Health Organization indicated that infant feeding is crucial for growth and development. WHO estimated that 800 000 death amongst children under five years can be prevented annually if infants are breastfeeding. Objectives: To determine infant feeding practices and anthropometric status of children aged 3 to 24 months. Study Design: A descriptive survey was done. The researcher described infant feeding practice and anthropometric status of children aged 3 to 24 months. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices were determined by questionnaire, a quantified food frequency questionnaire was used to determine the usual food intake. Setting/participants: Participants included 240 caregivers with children age 3-24 months from Nkowankowa Township, Mopani district in Limpopo Province. Results: More than half of infants (56.7%) were males and 43.3% were females. 85% initiated breastfeeding immediately after delivery. 42.4% were giving infant formula milk. First solid foods given were maize-meal soft porridge (73.3%). During visit, 75% of the children were of normal weight, 13.3% were mildly underweight, 3.3% were underweight, and 6.7% were severely underweight while 1.7% were at possible risk of growth problems. Conclusion: Inappropriate feeding practices should be addressed. Interventions should emphasize the importance of exclusive breastfeeding and correct the introduction of complementary feeding since the rate of exclusive breastfeeding is still low when compared to developed countries.

Day 2

Super Food and Functional Foods | Track 11: Probiotic in Nutrition Advancement | Track 12: Food Safety and Security Challenges | Track 13: Food Biotechnology and Microbiology | Track 14: Food Waste Management | Track 15: Food Chemistry and Biochemistry | Track 17: Food Technologies and Processing | Track 18: Food Industry
Speaker
  • Sourdough bread obtained from a dough fortified with anthocyanin-rich flour from the purple potato cv. Vitelotte as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes
    Speaker
    Angela Zinnai
    University of Pisa
    Italy
    Biography

    She has completed her 1st Ph.D at the age of 25 years from the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa. She is a Professor of Food technology of Pisa University. In 2008, she received a “Special Mention” at “Montana Premium” for Food Science Research (with her colleague Venturi F.). She has published more than 100 papers in journals or volumes and serving as a referee for research projects and papers. She was a scientific responsible for an Original Patent (PT2009A000018), an author of two Original Patents of Pisa University. She was Invited Speaker and part of the organizing committee for several national and international workshops and conferences.

    Abstract

    When used in optimized proportions, sourdough can improve volume, texture, flavour, and nutritional value of bread, and may increase the shelf life by retarding the staling process and protecting bread from mould and bacterial spoilage (1). In this context, to satisfy the increasing demand for products with higher nutritional value, sourdough bread was fortified with purple potatoes, an ancient cv. Vitelotte, with purple pulp. Changes in nutraceutical properties were estimated analyzing anthocyanin contents, phenolic composition as well as antioxidant power (2, 3). The nutritional and chemical composition, together with the sensory profile were also described, following the methods reported in literature (4, 5). The preliminary results indicate that chemical composition of sourdough bread, as well as sensorial expression, might be greatly influenced by the addition of purple potato floor. In particular, bread also retained high levels of phenols, explaining its higher antioxidant activity compared to the traditional sourdough bread, and suggests that Vitelotte can represent a good source of phenols for the fortification of bread.

  • Design and Production of Food processing machine using under water shock wave for practical application
    Speaker
    Ken Shimojima
    Okinawa College
    Japan
    Biography

    He finished doctor course and worked at assistant professor on Tokyo Denki University at 2004. He worked at assistant professor on Sophia University from 2004 to 2009. Now he is working at associate professor on National Institute of Technology, Okinawa College from 2009.

    Abstract

    A food processing machine that generates underwater shock waves has been developed at OkNCT. The processing method using a spalling phenomenon, it is different from the conventional processing method. The processing effects are improvement of extractability, softening, and sterilization without heating. In this report, the following contents are reported. 1. The processing mechanism of the spalling phenomenon by underwater shock wave and the optical observation of shock wave. 2. The processing method of this device. 3. A result that some food was processed experimentally by this device. 3. The summary of consecutive driving devices for practical use. When a shock wave goes through the plant, I am divided into a reflection and transmission wave in the interface of the difference of the density. Tension power occurs in this interface. Then, the food is crashed by this phenomenon. Figure shows a food processing machine for test crashing using underwater shock wave. This device consists of a power supply, a processing unit. The pressure vessel in the processing unit, this inside is filled with water, and electrode of two sets are installed in center of vessel. Electric energy charged in a condenser is supplied to an electrode by a gap switch, and a shock wave occurs with electric collapse. The food is covered by a silicone hose, and it is crushed in the atmosphere. We crushed several food by this device, and inspected the processing effect. Results such as the milling flour of rice and the coffee, softening of a meat and a carrot and an apple, the sterilization of a powder are introduced. We developed consecutive operations processing device that practical use was possible.

  • Consumer perception and purchase behaviour towards processed foods at the University of Venda
    Speaker
    Mbhatsani Hlekani Vanessa.
    University of Venda
    South Africa
    Biography

    Hlekani Vanessa Mbhatsani is a Lecturer of Nutrition at the University of Venda and a registered Nutritionist with the Health Professional Council of South Africa. She has received both her undergraduate BSc and MSc in Public Nutrition at the University of Venda. As a Post-graduate student she was given an opportunity to perform Research and Teaching Assistant functions. This provoked the teaching and research interest that led her to applying for the lecturing position after completion of her MSc. To enhance her teaching responsibilities, she persuaded a Post graduate Diploma in Higher Education at Rhodes University. She is currently studying towards her PhD with Stellenbosch University. Her research areas of interest include micronutrients, role of indigenous foods in health and nutrition, child nutrition and food security. She is a co-author of chapter six in a book titled “Community Nutrition for South Africa; A Right Based Approach”. She has presented her work both in national and international conferences and only published a few articles in peer reviewed journals

    Abstract

    Background: Globally the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. The convenience that many highly processed foods offer may also encourage unhealthy eating patterns, such as skipping meals and over consuming calories. There is therefore reason to believe that high consumption of ready-to-consume food products in general, is a cause of NCDs. Objectives: To investigate consumers’ perceptions and purchase behaviour towards processed foods among university students. Methodology: The study design was convergent parallel mixed methods where in qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. Purposive sampling was used to select the sampling frame and 150 students were conveniently selected. An interview guide and interviewee administered questionnaire were used to collect data from individual students. A tape recorder, researcher’s notes and a peer notes were used to record qualitative data. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis wherein the process of triangulation was followed and Quantitative analysis was done using a software. Results: Most consumers 45% understood processed foods as foods which have additives that keep them fresh and prolong their shelf life. About half of consumers 56.7% perceive processed foods as having negative health effects. Qualitative data show that consumers believed that these foods when consumed regularly may lead to overweight”. All consumers 100% in this study purchase bread, canned beans and fish, potato chips (80%), vetkoek(doughnut without cream) (69%) and breakfast cereals (45%) regularly. However, cheese, polony, viena and ready to eat meals were purchased once a week. The reasons for buying processed foods were mainly convenience (43.3%), consumers gave other reasons such as affordability, and good taste, and this was mentioned by 5% of consumers respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion all consumers had knowledge about processed foods based on the researcher’s discretion. Although these were university students they had negative perception towards processed foods. Key words: consumers, processed foods, behaviour, purchase and students

  • Alcohol consumption and commonly consumed food among youth in Mokopane in Limpopo province, South Africa
    Speaker
    Selekane Ananias Motadi
    University of Venda
    South Africa
    Biography

    Selekane Ananias Motadi is a junior lecturer of Nutrition at the University of Venda. He received his junior degree BSc in Nutrition at the University of Venda. In 2010, He registered for Master Degree in Public Nutrition at the same university. He is a registered Nutritionist with Health Professional Council of South Africa. He was offered tenure in the Department of Nutrition. In addition to teaching, Mr. Motadi is a regular contributor to the micronutrient malnutrition particularly zinc and a Mamelodi sundowns United fan. He has registered for postgraduate diploma in health professional education at the University of Cape Town which he envisages completing in 2015. He has collaborated on manuscripts with Prof XG Mbhenyane, Dr. RL Mamabolo, Ms. HV Mbhatsani and Mr. NS Mabapa entitled “Prevalence of zinc deficiency among children aged 3-5 years in Vhembe district, Limpopo province, South Africa”. He currently resides in Limpopo Province, South Africa with his brother.

    Abstract

    Introduction Alcoholic consumption has been a part of social life for decades, yet many people have always found it problematic to understand or confine their use. South Africa has a high percentage of people who consume alcohol and who are not physically active as compared to other developing countries. Moreover, the use of alcoholic beverages has been an integral part of many cultures for thousands of years in South Africa Objectives: To determine alcohol consumption and commonly consumed food among youth in Mokopane. Methods: This study included 160 youth recruited from the villages in Mokopane which is found in Mogalakwena Local municipality of Limpopo province, South Africa. Villages were selected using simple random sampling and snowballing sampling was used to choose study participants. Body weight and height, waist and hip were measured using standard technique. Food consumption was collected using 24-hour recall and food frequency questionnaire. Alcohol was assessed with quantity-frequency method. Alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12grams), moderate drinkers (12-167 grams for men, 12-83grams for women), and heavy drinkers (?168 for men, ? for women). Results: Waist circumference of women was higher than those of men (p<0.018). Furthermore, the mean systolic and diastolic were 117.33 ±3.06 and 117.14 ±9.35 respectively. In addition, the mean glucose level of heavy drinkers for men was lower 4.20 ±0.44 as compared to their counterparts 5.27 ±1.26. BMI was positively correlated with Systolic (r=0.395; p<0.000), Diastolic (r=0.276; p<0.000) and Glucose (r=0.385; p<0.000). There was no significant difference in the following highly consumed food items in both men and women except with the consumption of milk between men (p<0.05) and women (p=0.591). In addition, there were significant difference in the consumption of cabbage between men (p=0.582) and women (p<0.019). Furthermore, there were significant difference in the consumption of beans in both men (p=0.944) and women (p<0.044). Conclusion: Men consumed more alcohol than women and some of the gender differences. This gender gap is one of the few universal gender differences in human social behavior. The most commonly consumed food items were grouped according to starchy foods (which are normally the staple foods amongst most South Africans), protein foods, fats, milk and milk products, fruits, vegetables and beverages.

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